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Liberty Caps is a tall thin field mushroom. The cap is quite distinctive, with a pronounced papilla on top of a tall and slender cap. The stem is long and thin, enough to raise the cap above the grass to distribute its spores. Although delicate looking, these are tough mushrooms, and a common identification test is to twist the stem around your little finger to see if the stem breaks. In most cases, a Panaeolus or Conocybe stem will readily break, but Liberty Caps are very fibrous and should not snap.
Liberty caps have a cap that is approximately 5–25 mm (0.2–1.0 in) in diameter and a height of 6–22 mm (0.24–0.87 in). The cap can vary in shape from sharply conical to bell-shaped. A distinctive feature is their prominent papilla (the nipple-shaped top of the cap). At maturity, the cap margin is straight and can become slightly curled upwards. When moist, radial grooves (striations) can be seen on the cap that corresponds to the positions of the gills underneath.
A feature of Psilocybe spp. is their hygrophanous cap, and this is no different with P. semilanceata. The Liberty Caps has a gelatinous layer called a separable pellicle; as this dries out, the cap can take on different colours depending on the moisture present. When the cap is moist, it can be pale brown to dark chestnut brown, often with a green-blue tinge. The pellicle can be used as an identifying feature by gently breaking the cap and bending it back to reveal the layer. When the cap is dry, it becomes much paler, a light yellow-brown color, and the pellicle is no longer peelable
The gills are narrow and moderately crowded together, initially pale brown, but becoming dark grey to purple-brown as the spores mature. Their attachment to the stem is narrowly adnexed, almost free. P. semilanceata are reported to have a thin cobweb-like partial veil, but these are rarely visible. The partial veil can leave an annular zone on the stem, to which spores stick, leaving a darkened ring around the stem. The stem is slender, off-white turning yellow-brown, 45–140 mm (1.8–5.5 in) in length, and 1–3.5 mm (0.04–0.14 in) thick, usually equal thickness becoming slightly thicker towards the base.
An important diagnostic feature of the genus Psilocybe is the blue bruising; Liberty Caps do not bruise as readily as other Psilocybe spp., but will show some bruising on the base of their stem, hence the name “Blue Legs.” As with other Psilocybe spp. they have a farinaceous, flour or starch-like odor.
Liberty Caps are a mushroom with many names
Psilocybe semilanceata was named Agaricus semilanceatus by Elias Magnus Fries, who wrote the first formal description in 1838 for his book Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici. The species was moved to Psilocybe in 1871 by Paul Kummer, while reviewing Fries’s classifications. “Agaricus” had been used as a broad umbrella name, so Kummer, revising Fries classification, moved many species to their own genus.
The Genus name “Psilocybe” is derived from the Ancient Greek psilos (ψιλός), which means “smooth” or “bare,” and the Byzantine Greek kubê (κύβη), which means “head.” The species name “semilanceata” means half spear-shaped, from the shape of the pileus—the Latin semi (“half” or “somewhat”) and lanceata, from lanceolatus, meaning “spear-shaped”.
Liberty Caps: Where are they found?
Psilocybe semilanceata is a temperate and sub-alpine species. It can be found growing in both autumn and spring; in the northern hemisphere, growing in August to November and then May to June. In the southern hemisphere, it grows from April to May and then September to October. It tends to favor oceanic climates.
Liberty caps grow throughout Europe, where it is assumed to be an endemic species. It is thought that they were introduced to other countries by the movement of livestock. It now occurs throughout the temperate regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. In the US and Canada, P. semilanceata occurs along the west coast, from British Columbia to California, and in some locations on the East Coast, from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland. In the Southern Hemisphere, P. semilanceata grows in Tasmania, south-east Australia, New Zealand, Chile, Argentina, and South Africa.
Psilocybe semilanceata is found amongst grass growing in rich soil in temperate meadows. The mushrooms are often scattered, but in rich soil can be found in dense groups, mainly when growing in fields near farmyards, or well-manured pastures. Liberty Caps are spread by animals and humans, either by foot traffic or dung. Although it does not typically grow directly on the dug, it is often found in pastures that have been fertilized with sheep, cow, or horse manure.
Psilocybe semilanceata: How Strong are They?
Most Psilocybe species will bruise a variety of shades of blue or blue-green when damaged, but in the case of P. semilanceata, they only tend to bruise a small amount at the base of their stem. Given their tall thin stature, you would probably pass on these given a familiarity with other species such as Psilocybe cubensis. To look at, you wouldn’t think they are very potent, but by the percentage of dry weight, they are more potent than P. cubensis.
Psilocybe semilanceata has been analyzed several times with variations in results. Tjakko Stijve and Thom Kuyper, in 1985 analysing a single specimen, found a concentration of psilocybin of 1.7 percent dry weight, with a concentration of baeocystin at 0.36 percent. In 1993, Gartz reported P. semilanceata having an average of 1.0 percent psilocybin by dry weight, ranging from 0.2-2.37 percent psilocybin. Analyzing specimens from the Pacific Northwest, Michael Beug and Jeremy Bigwood found psilocybin concentrations ranging from 0.62-1.28 percent, with an average of 1 percent. Psilocybe cubensis contain psilocin and psilocybin at 0.14-0.42 percent and 0.37-1.30 percent, respectively.
Psilocybe semilanceata contain significantly more psilocybin than psilocin (psilocybin being more stable, deteriorating more slowly than psilocin) so that after a few months of storage in a cool dark environment, the mushrooms tend to retain most of their original potency. The main issue with P. semilanceata is that they dry to a tiny dry, thin mushroom; therefore, you need to collect a lot for a dose.
How to find Liberty Cap
Liberty Caps is very difficult to cultivate, so the primary way of obtaining mushrooms of the species is to forage for them. The best way to start is to get to know your target species, learn the description, their habitat, and the timing of the seasons. If you live in areas where they are known to grow, fields, meadows, and lawns are the best places to look for Liberty Caps, especially if livestock have been present.
It is essential to know the lookalike species—species that may be confused with your target species. The most common lookalike species is Protostropharia semiglobata, various Panaeolus spp, Conocybe spp, and possibly Deconica spp. There are poisonous Psathyrella species that can easily be misidentified as Liberty Caps. Given the worldwide distribution of P. semilanceata, there will be different lookalike species on each respective continent and region. For example, in Europe, there is the poisonous species Cortinarius rubellus that has been confused for P. semilanceata, the consumption of which may result in kidney failure.
When foraging, be sure to take a field guide for your area, and have a couple of forums handy on your phone. Shroomery has the “Mushrooms hunting and identification” subforum. The iNaturalist app is also very useful and can provide identifications when photos of the mushrooms are uploaded. There are numerous Facebook groups, as well, so you can join one local to the area where you are foraging, and members will be aware of local lookalikes. Check all the mushrooms as you collect them; try to avoid picking those that don’t fit the description. It is best to not trespass: Always seek the permission of the landowner; the gift of a bottle of wine or six-pack of beer can go a long way and may provide extra advice. Also, keep in mind, being found in possession of psilocybin-containing mushrooms is illegal in most parts of the world. Buy Liberty Caps Online
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